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History

When Andra was first set up, it was a division of the French Atomic Energy Commission (the CEA). It became an independent public agency in 1991, placed under the supervision of the French Ministries for Energy, the Environment and Research. Andra is tasked with researching, implementing and guaranteeing safe management solutions to protect present and future generations from the risks posed by radioactive waste. To fulfil its tasks, Andra has undergone many changes over the years. It now focuses on three core activities (operating industrial sites, research and development, and project design), in which it has developed robust multidisciplinary expertise.

1969 – 1991 : how Andra came to be set up

Early days

The history of radioactive waste management began long before Andra was set up. In France, the first radioactive waste was produced in the 1930s, primarily at hospitals that used radium sources to treat cancer.

When the CEA, the French Atomic Energy Commission, was set up after the Second World War, nuclear research facilities began to generate larger quantities of radioactive waste. While there was no organised disposal solution, rules had already been established. The first such rule was that waste should be conditioned safely, and the second was that it should be stored at the CEA's sites.

However, in the 1950s and 60s, with the commissioning of the first nuclear power plants, the development of research and the manufacturing of atomic weapons, the amount of radioactive waste began to build up. Thus, in 1967 and 1969, France took part, on an experimental basis, in two international ocean disposal campaigns, before deciding not to pursue this practice, which was deemed unethical.

The CEA then opted to build its first facility for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste next to its fuel reprocessing plant in La Hague. The Manche disposal facility came into service in January 1969, and was operated by Infratome.

Radioactive waste disposal at sea in the 1960s'

Setting up Andra

In 1974, in light of the oil crisis that followed the Arab–Israeli War, France decided to develop a major nuclear industry, comprising several dozen nuclear power plants as well as plants for recycling spent fuel. Deploying this massive programme resulted in a huge increase in the volume of all categories of radioactive waste.
To deal with this situation, the government asked the CEA to set up an internal body that would be directly responsible for managing all this waste. Thus, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency came into being in 1979.

Management of the Manche disposal facility

The first task assigned to Andra was to develop the surface disposal system for low- and intermediate-level waste. Andra took over operating at the Manche disposal facility. It quickly imposed some fundamental rules on the nuclear power operators regarding the safe and rationalised disposal of their waste. For example, waste now had to be conditioned in standard waste packages and this was subject to prior approval. In addition, Andra developed a collection system to monitor and manage water flow out of the disposal facility, thus enabling the facility's impact on its surrounding environment to be monitored.

A new disposal facility in the Aube

In 1984, Andra started to look for a site for a new disposal facility to take over from the Manche facility as soon as it reached full capacity. Geological surveys were launched in various parts of France. Meanwhile, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) set out its basic safety rules for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), inspired by the multi-barrier system developed at the Manche disposal facility (CSM) and consisting in the waste package, the disposal structure, and the geological medium. 
As a result of the geological investigations, the Aube was selected as the area in which to site the facility. A local consultation process was launched, and site visits and meetings with local elected officials and the public were organised. On 22 July 1987, France's Prime Minister signed the declaration of public utility: the new disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level waste (CSFMA) would be build in Soulaines-Dhuys. On 4 September 1989, the licence to construct the CSFMA was granted by the Ministry for Industry and Land Use Planning, and work began to construct the disposal facility.

The Aube disposal facility during construction

Initial research for a deep geological disposal facility

Since the late 1960s, high-level waste and intermediate-level long-lived waste, mainly resulting from reprocessing French spent fuel, had been stored at the plants in La Hague (Manche) and Marcoule (Gard) pending development of a final disposal solution. The solution envisaged entailed disposing of this waste in deep geological formations that have been stable for millions of years and are therefore the only formations likely to effectively confine this waste for the period of time necessary.

Planned laboratory in the Deux-Sèvres

To this end, in 1982, Andra began to work with other countries that were already carrying out advanced research on the properties of various rock formations with a view to underground disposal:

  • in Mol, in Belgium, in a clay formation
  • in Asse, in Germany, in a former salt mine
  • and in Grimsel, in Switzerland, in a granite formation

In 1987, following desk-based research, Andra sent its geologists to conduct investigations at four sites in France which geology seemed suitable for building underground laboratories at which the feasibility of deep geological disposal could be studied:

  • Deux-Sèvres (granite formations)
  • Maine-et-Loire (schist formations)
  • Ain (saline formations)
  • Aisne (argillaceous rock)

However, there was a great deal of protest in these districts and, three years later, then Prime Minister, Michel Rocard, in a bid to break the stalemate affecting such an important project for the development of the nuclear industry, ordered a one-year moratorium on all these projects.

The Act of 1991 making Andra independent

In December 1991, France's National Assembly adopted a law that changed Andra's status, making it independent from the CEA. This law also set out the details of how the feasibility study relative to a deep geological disposal facility should be carried out. Andra was given fifteen years to complete this study. Christian Bataille was appointed as mediator, tasked with finding local authorities willing to allow an underground laboratory to be sited in their regions.

1992 - 1999 : the groundwork

1992-1994: Andra continues its activities

In January 1992, the disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level waste (CSFMA) was brought into service and started to receive the first waste packages in the Aube. Also in 1992, Andra began to develop a solution for waste from sources other than the nuclear power industry, primarily from university hospitals. This highly complex research was to take nearly ten years to complete.

Finally, the last waste package arrived at the Manche disposal facility on 30 June 1994, bringing thirty-five years of operating to an end. Work on the leaktight cap went ahead, with a view to preparing the site to enter the monitoring stage in 2003.

Stockage du dernier colis au CSM

1994-1996: Andra carries out additional geological investigations with a view to constructing an underground laboratory

Plateforme de forage de reconnaissance géologique dans la Vienne

Thanks to the successful outcome of mediation by Christian Bataille, MP for Nord, the aim of which was to hold prior consultations in order to present the government with the sites in favour of the construction of underground laboratories, the Andra teams were able to resume fieldwork in 1994. They conducted geological investigations in four départements:

  • Gard (argillaceous rock)
  • Vienne (granite)
  • Meuse (argillaceous rock)
  • Haute-Marne (argillaceous rock)

By means of seismic measure measurement campaigns and core sampling from boreholes, Andra studied the geological layers to see if they were suitable sites for a laboratory. This research was conducted under very different conditions to those prior to the moratorium. To start with, Andra's activities could now be conducted within the framework of the law. Second, local elected officials in the areas around the sites gave their support to Andra. There was still some opposition, including demonstrations and even some acts of vandalism, but Andra was able to go ahead with its studies without hindrance.

In 1996, the Meuse and Haute-Marne projects were merged to form a single site in the municipality of Bure. Andra then submitted three licence applications to construct underground research laboratories. However, in April 1997, a political shift stopped a decision being made. In the new majority government headed by Lionel Jospin, there was no longer unanimous support for the laboratory project. 

1998: Andra now had the go-ahead to construct a laboratory in the clay formation

Andra's research on the feasibility of deep geological disposal had not been put on hold, and for the last two years, the Agency had taken part in the Swiss "Mont Terri" project, in the Jura, where researchers were using the exploratory drift excavated for a motorway tunnel to carry out experiments on a layer of argillaceous rock with similar properties to the clay formation in Bure. Andra also continued to fund research at a number of university laboratories.

Laying the first stone for the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory

In August 1998, a major European anti-nuclear demonstration was held in Bure. On the day of the demonstration, the mayors of fifteen neighbouring municipalities set up signs saying "Oui au labo" (Yes to the Lab) on the fronts of their town halls.

In December 1998, a political compromise was reached and the government announced its decisions following an interministerial meeting on nuclear policy:

  • the future disposal facility must be reversible
  • the site in the Gard was ruled out
  • the study on the Vienne granite site was deemed inconclusive and it was ruled out, but Andra should continue to study the site. These studies resulted in Andra's publication in 2005 of the "Dossier 2005 Granite" on the feasibility of underground disposal in a granite formation
  • and last, the Meuse/Haute-Marne site was chosen as the site for an underground research laboratory: over ten years since first starting work on the project, Andra had the go-ahead to construct a research laboratory in the clay formation.

1999: a new disposal facility in the Aube

Consultations with local elected officials and associations were launched to discuss the opening of a new facility near the disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level waste (CSFMA), this time designed for the disposal of very low-level waste (CSTFA), which until then had been stored at the producers' sites or disposed of at the CSFMA. Studies were launched in November to find the most suitable site in geological terms.

2000 - 2005 : the Cigéo project takes shape

Work on constructing the laboratory began in 2000

Initial studies began as shafts were excavated: a few metres would be excavated and then the geologists were allowed to study the rock for a few hours before excavation resumed. Unfortunately, in May 2002, following a fatal accident, construction work was stopped for nearly a year. 

Geological survey of the walls of the auxiliary shaft at the Underground Research Laboratory

2001-2003: developing the new disposal facility for very low-level waste

In 2001, the first public inquiry was held on the utility of developing the CSTFA facility for the disposal of very low-level waste (VLLW) and on clearing land for the future facility. A second public inquiry was held in 2002 regarding the operating licence and construction licence application. On 9 August 2002, a prefectoral order was issued granting the construction licence, followed on 26 June 2003 by another prefectoral order granting the facility operating licence.

With the opening of the facility for the disposal of very low-level waste (CSTFA) in Morvilliers, the first disposal facility of its kind in the world, a solution had been found for the disposal of waste primarily produced as a result of dismantling nuclear facilities. Waste packages are emplaced in disposal cells excavated in the clay, and protected from bad weather by huge removable roofs. They are then covered with a final layer of clay, several metres thick, and a plant cover.

Mobile roof at the Very Low Level waste disposal facility

2004: constructing the Underground Research Laboratory

By November 2004, at the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory, Andra had reached the clayey layer that was to be studied, at a depth of 445 metres below the surface. The first drift was excavated for the installation of a series of experimental instruments. Excavation of the shaft continued and, at a depth of 490 metres, other horizontal drifts were excavated and further experiments undertaken. The measurements taken confirmed the results of studies on core samples as well as those of the studies conducted at Mont-Terri in Switzerland.

Dossier 2005 submitted to the government

Submitting Dossier 2005 and the first public debate

In June 2005, Andra submitted its report on the feasibility of deep geological disposal for high-level waste and intermediate-level long-lived waste (sometimes called Dossier 2005). The 10,000-page report presents the research carried out since the 1991 Act was passed. It concludes that the argillaceous layer of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site is ideally suited to the construction of a disposal facility for high-level waste and intermediate-level long-lived waste. This was a major step forward for radioactive waste management in France.

Between 12 September 2005 and 13 January 2006, a public debate on radioactive waste management was held, and input was gathered from researchers and their different assessments, to inform and clarify the government’s position prior to debate on the draft law in 2006. The conclusions of the 2005 public debate reflect a number of wishes that would be taken up in the law passed in 2006, for example, establishing a national management policy covering all radioactive materials and waste, reiterating the prohibition on disposing of foreign waste in France, setting up an independent administrative authority in charge of nuclear safety, extending Andra's responsibilities and reinforcing the role of the local information and oversight committee.

http://cpdp.debatpublic.fr/cpdp-dechets-radioactifs/docs/pdf/suites-debatpublic.pdf

2006-2012: towards new missions

2006: new law, new missions

The law of 28 June 2006 consolidates Andra’s missions of designing and operating radioactive waste disposal facilities:

  • It tasks Andra with designing and building a deep reversible disposal facility for high-level and medium-level long-lived waste at a depth of 500 metres in the same layer of clay that was studied by the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory.
  • It is also to seek a solution for low-level long-lived, radium-bearing and graphite waste.
  • Lastly, missions in the general interest:
    • decontamination of disused sites contaminated by radioactivity known as orphan sites (i.e., sites where the responsible parties have been negligent).  Beginning in 2007, Andra's Governing Board approved the creation of the National Advisory Committee for Public Funding in the Field of Radioactivity (CNAR) to determine priority sites, funding, and strategies for remediation and closer monitoring of the cleanup of these sites,
    • management of radioactive waste held by private individuals (alarms with radioluminescent needles, radium fountains, etc.) with the launch, in late 2008, of an awareness campaign (among the 36,000 mayors of France, departmental fire and rescue services, waste treatment industry associations, etc.) to identify and collect these radioactive objects. CNAR covers the costs of these programmes.

 

2007: Creation of the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE)

In 2007, Andra acquired a scientific tool whose objective is to provide an environmental reference within the framework of the geological disposal project. The OPE is an observation and monitoring tool which studies an area of 900 km2 in the departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne with a reference area of 240 km2 in which analyses are more detailed. It relies on several hundred observation points, satellite and aerial imagery and instrumented continuous monitoring stations (atmospheric and meteorological station, water and aquatic monitoring station, agricultural stations, etc.). The research it conducts is part of a national and international scientific network.

OPE website

2008 : seeking a management solution for low-level long-lived waste (LLW-LL)

June 2008, having identified 3,115 municipalities where the site geology would be suitable for a disposal facility for low-level long-lived waste (LLW-LL), Andra launched a call for applications and sent out an information pack to the mayors of the municipalities in question. At the end of 2008, more than 40 municipalities applied to host such a disposal facility. In June 2009, based on analysis carried out by Andra, the government shortlisted two locations (Auxon and Pars-lès-Chavanges in the Aube) for further geological and environmental investigation. Under pressure from opponents to the project, these two municipalities withdrew from the project in July and August 2009. 

In June 2010, in the French National Radioactive Materials and Waste Management Plan (PNGMDR), the government set out new project guidelines: studies to improve knowledge, processing and conditioning of LLW-LL should be pursued, and a report presenting the different management options for this type of waste should be submitted to the government in 2012 at the latest.

2009-2012 : Cigeo, the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, takes shape

Open Day at the Meuse/ Haute Marne Centre’s Technological Exhibition Facility

2009 : The Technological Exhibition Facility opened and a progress report on research into deep geological disposal was submitted

In 2009, next to the Underground Research Laboratory, the Technological Exhibition Facility was built for carrying out tests and for displaying prototype objects and equipment that may be used in the deep geological disposal facility.

At the end of 2009, as an addition to Dossier 2005, Andra submitted a new progress report on the disposal facility project to the government. This included a proposal, resulting from dialogue with local stakeholders and with a view to studying the siting of the underground facilities at the deep geological disposal facility, to define a 30 km2 zone called the ZIRA (zone of interest for detailed reconnaissance).

2010: Investment in the Future and the launch of the Cigeo project

In March 2010, Andra was given authorisation to conduct detailed geological investigations in the ZIRA. The deep geological disposal facility project was given the name Cigeo (Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal).
On 3 August 2010, under France's “Investment in the Future” programme, Andra was granted 100 million euros to fund the development of innovative radioactive waste treatment solutions with a view to reducing the volume of certain types of waste for which no simple disposal solution exists and minimising the associated risks. This agreement provided Andra with the means to extend its ability to take action upstream of radioactive waste management.

2011: Andra's 20th anniversary and the launch of industrial design for Cigeo

To mark Andra's 20th anniversary, Charles Giulioli, a "painter-engineer", created a highly-original digital artwork based on the history of Andra, illustrating all the stages of construction, innovation and development.

Accredited by the Comité National de la Chimie (French Committee on Chemistry affiliated to the IUPAC) and sponsored by the Institut Curie, IRSN, the ASN and a number of French ministries, Andra held an exhibition entitled "Radioactivity: from Homer to Oppenheimer" designed to share knowledge about the history of radioactivity, raise awareness of the different purposes for which it is used, and provide a better understanding of the issues involved in managing radioactive waste. Starting at the Palais de la Découverte and then on tour in the regions where Andra operates facilities, the exhibition attracted nearly 120,000 visitors in the space of around three years.

Drawing on all the studies, research and experiments carried out since 1991, Andra officially launched the industrial design stage of the Cigeo project. This has been a key stage in developing the project, entailing the definition of the operational specifications and technical options underlying the design of Cigeo.
On 20 December 2011, following the public inquiry, operating at the Underground Research Laboratory at the Meuse / Haute-Marne Centre was extended up to 2030.

2012: new activities at the Cires and a public debate on the planned Cigeo project

Packages containing low- and intermediate-level waste awaiting treatment in the grouping building at the Cires

Andra integrated two new activities at the VLLW disposal facility to deal with waste from industries unrelated to nuclear power production. These entail grouping and storing this type of waste if it cannot be dealt with at existing disposal facilities. The facility changed its name to the Cires, the Industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal. These new activities allow Andra to make the management of waste from these sectors, which includes over 1,200 different customers, much more reliable.


Research on the LLW-LL project continued: in 2012, Andra submitted to the government a report proposing new areas for research regarding the disposal of LLW-LL, taking account of the recommendations made by the France's High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN). Based on this report, the government informed Andra of its guidelines for pursuing the project. In 2013, the Soulaines intercommunal authority gave Andra its approval to conduct geological investigations in the vicinity of Andra's Aube industrial facilities from 2013 to 2015.


In October 2012, Andra asked the National Public Debate Commission (CNDP) to organise a public debate on the Cigeo project, its objectives and its characteristics, required for the studies relating to the construction licence application.

2013 – 2018 : a period of change at Andra

2013 : second public debate on Cigeo

As required by the law passed in 2006, a second public debate on Cigeo prior to submitting the construction licence application was held from 15 May to 15 December 2013. The outcomes of this public debate included changes to the project timetable, the integration of an industrial pilot phase when the facility first starts operating, and a proposal to use a definition of reversibility as a governance tool for the development of Cigeo. The public debate officially came to an end at the beginning of 2014 with a Citizens’ Conference.

Public meeting in Bar-le-Duc

In terms of industrial development, the Cigeo project then entered the basic engineering design stage: this stage defines the underground structures in which radioactive waste will be emplaced and the surface facilities required for excavation work and facility operating.

The Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE) in Meuse / Haute-Marne developed a new tool: the Environmental Specimen Bank. In this building, specimens taken as part of the work of the OPE are conserved in conditions designed to ensure traceability and their integrity. The Environmental Specimen Bank comes in addition to the atmosphere monitoring station built in 2011 for the very long-term monitoring of meteorological conditions, air quality and greenhouse gases, and the five water monitoring stations set up in March 2012 to monitor the physical, chemical and biological quality of water in the waterways within the zone covered by the OPE.

Transferring a specimen in the pedothèque storage room at the Perennial Observatory of the Environment

2014: a year of progress

In September 2014, Andra presented all its memory-keeping systems at the international conference on the “Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory of Radioactive Waste across Generations” held in Verdun and organised by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. Andra's systems have been designed to pass memory of the facility down through at least 15 to 20 generations, i.e. for around five centuries.
Progress on the Cigeo project continued and key milestones were passed in relation to research on sealing and excavation processes, two crucial factors in the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation.

Andra reorganised to meet future challenges

In February 2015, Andra submitted a status report on the cap at the Manche disposal facility (CSM) to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). This document describes plans for ensuring very long-term facility safety, and its conclusions will be used in drawing up the safety review report on the CSM, due to be submitted to the ASN in 2019.

In cooperation with the French National Research Agency (ANR) and with support under France's Investment in the Future programme, Andra organised the first call for proposals on optimising the management of radioactive waste from dismantling. Twelve research and development projects were selected for grants worth a total of 40 million euros.

Andra's internal organisation was to undergo deep-rooted changes as of September with a view to ensuring tighter and stronger coordination of the Cigeo project ahead of moving the project forward into a new design phase. This new matrix structure involved setting up two new divisions (the Cigeo Project Division and the Engineering Division) and restructuring the existing divisions, as in the case, for example, of the Risk Management Division, which became the Safety, Environment and Solution Strategy Division.

2016 : key milestones in the cigeo project

 

 

Annual meeting with elected officials

To mark the 150th anniversary of the birth of Marie Curie, Andra sponsored an exhibition entitled Marie Curie, une femme au Panthéon paying tribute to this legendary scientist. The exhibition, organised by the Centre des Monuments Nationaux, Institut Curie and the Musée Curie, was held inside the Panthéon, in Paris, from 8 November 2017 to 4 March 2018.

Within the framework of continuing consultations since the 2013 public debate on the Cigeo project, Andra launched an ambitious initiative to encourage greater public involvement, and asked the National Public Debate Commission (CNDP) to ensure that the concerns of civil society are better taken into consideration in pursuing the project. In November, the CNDP appointed two guarantors to assist Andra in its actions.

 At the end of 2017, operations began in the disposal cell designed for "non-standard" waste packages at the Industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal. This disposal cell is used for the disposal of heavy and/or large waste items, mainly from dismantling nuclear facilities in France.

Early in 2016, the French Minister for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy set a target cost of 25 billion euros for the Cigeo project, covering the planned 150 years for its construction and operating. Regarding Cigeo's industrial design, the project had now entered the detailed engineering design stage, the last leg before submitting the construction licence application.

In April, Andra submitted the Safety Options Report regarding Cigeo to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). The Safety Options Report underwent in-depth examination lasting many months by an international peer review panel, the Advisory Committee, the National Review Board (CNE2), IRSN and the ASN, which issued its Opinion in January 2018.

In June, after two years completing procedures and works, the building housing the facility for sorting and treating radioactive waste was inaugurated at the Aube Industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal (Cires). This new facility is designed to meet the requirements of producers of radioactive waste in sectors other than nuclear power generation.

Thanks to Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016, setting out the conditions for constructing a reversible facility for the disposal of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological formation, many of the concerns expressed during the public debate held in 2013 became established under French law. The Act defines the concept of reversibility and sets an agenda for regular public meetings to discuss governance of the project.

Early in 2016, the French Minister for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy set a target cost of 25 billion euros for the Cigeo project, covering the planned 150 years for its construction and operating. Regarding Cigeo's industrial design, the project had now entered the detailed engineering design stage, the last leg before submitting the construction licence application.

In April, Andra submitted the Safety Options Report regarding Cigeo to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). The Safety Options Report underwent in-depth examination lasting many months by an international peer review panel, the Advisory Committee, the National Review Board (CNE2), IRSN and the ASN, which issued its Opinion in January 2018.

In June, after two years completing procedures and works, the building housing the facility for sorting and treating radioactive waste was inaugurated at the Aube Industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal (Cires). This new facility is designed to meet the requirements of producers of radioactive waste in sectors other than nuclear power generation.

Thanks to Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016, setting out the conditions for constructing a reversible facility for the disposal of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological formation, many of the concerns expressed during the public debate held in 2013 became established under French law. The Act defines the concept of reversibility and sets an agenda for regular public meetings to discuss governance of the project.

At the end of 2016, Andra's Ethics and Society Committee (CES) was set up as a result of the undertakings made by Andra following the 2013 public debate. Focused on environmental democracy, the CES monitors Andra's fulfilment of its undertakings regarding openness to and interaction with society.

 

2017 : Andra continues its activities

2018 : a year of dialogue and consultation

A major milestone in the Cigeo project was reached in January. The ASN published a positive opinion on the Cigeo Safety Options Report submitted by Andra in 2016. This opinion is the result of an examination involving many organisations that took over a year and a half to complete and that ended with a public consultation. Highlighting the advances made by Andra in developing knowledge and in project design, the ASN identified certain subjects regarding which Andra needs to provide additional documentation in support of the construction license application.

At the Aube industrial facility, the ASN approved bringing the package inspection facility into operation, enabling certain packages to be inspected prior to disposal. Until now, such inspections were outsourced to external laboratories, since there were no suitable facilities at the site. Andra can now perform nondestructive tests (weighing, measuring dimensions, taking outgassing measurements and using X-ray scanners, etc.), as well as destructive tests (package inventory, core sampling).

In March, continuing efforts to increase dialogue with civil society and the participation of stakeholders, Andra officially launched a Consultation Roadmap for Cigeo. This Roadmap is intended to galvanize public information, debate and participation in development relating to a broad array of issues: environmental issues (especially at local level), safety, project management and governance for a period of over 150 years.

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